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Aortic Valve Replacement Module

This innovative module consists of a variety of cases and provides cases with anatomical variations such as: different heart orientations, different annulus sizes, different calcification levels of the valve, and different degrees of left ventricular hypertrophy.

The module also provides an opportunity to practice on possible complications such as: left ventricle perforation, bioprosthesis pop up during the deployment, and low implementation of the bioprosthesis causing reregulation.

The module consists of 8 different cases:

Case 1-5, 7 and 8 are performed via the common femoral approach.

Case 6 is performed via the subclavian approach.

The module includes:

  • Adapting an implantation strategy in order to deal with potential complications that might occur during the simulated cases such as:
    • Pericardial effusion – The user can learn how to identify pericardial effusion by looking at the vital signs, checking the Echo or injecting contrast from the pigtail catheter. Once identified, the user can treat it by using medication.
    • Bioprosthesis pop up – Due to low implantation, the valve pops up. The user needs to decide whether to remove the valve out of the patient’s body or to advance it towards the LV
    • Low implementation of bioprosthesis – The valve might slip towards the left ventricle. This complication can be treated by Balloon inflation, Snaring (using snaring catheter and wire), or implanting an additional valve in the correct location.
  • Practicing on selecting the recommended sizes for different devices and recommended projection for the bioprosthesis deployment.

At the beginning of these cases, the user has the option of starting the procedure with puncturing the access site based on the following criteria:

  • Pigtail loop distance from femoral bifurcation
  • Puncture site within 1 mm from artery center
  • Angle from artery
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